Pantoprazole, first sold under the brand name Protonix, is a medication used for the treatment of stomach ulcers, short-term treatment of erosive esophagitis due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis, and pathological hypersecretory conditions including Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. It may also be used along with other medications to eliminate Helicobacter pylori. It is available by mouth and by injection into a vein.
Common side effects include headache, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and joint pain. More serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions, a type of chronic inflammation known as atrophic gastritis, Clostridium difficile infection, low magnesium, and vitamin B-12 deficiency. Use in pregnancy appears to be safe. Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that decreases gastric acid secretion. It works by inactivating (H+/K+)-ATPase function in the stomach.
Study of pantoprazole began in 1985 and it came into medical use in Germany in 1994. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost of the pills in the United States as of 2018 is less than US$0.10 per dose. In the United Kingdom this amount costs less than 0.05 pounds, while the intravenous formulation costs about 5 pounds a dose. In 2016 it was the 25th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 25 million prescriptions.
Pantoprazole is used for short-term treatment of erosion and ulceration of the esophagus for adults and children 5 years of age and older caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease. It can be used as a maintenance therapy for long-term use after initial response is obtained, but there have not been any controlled studies about the use of pantoprazole past a duration of 12 months. Pantoprazole may also be used in combination with antibiotics to treat ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori. It can also be used for long-term treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It may be used to prevent gastric ulcers in those taking NSAIDs.
Pantoprazole is only indicated for the short-term treatment of erosive esophagitis in children ages 7 and older; and the safety and effectiveness of pantoprazole have only been established in the treatment of erosive esophagitis in children.
The incidence of adverse effects occurring in people aged 65 years and older was similar to that in people aged 65 years and less.
US pregnancy category B: In reproductive studies using doses largely greater than the recommended doses performed on rats and rabbits, there was no evident harm on the development of the baby.
Pantoprazole has been found to pass through the breast milk. However, in rodent cancer studies, pantoprazole has been shown to potentially cause tumor growth. The clinical relevance of the finding is unknown, but risks and benefits are recommended for consideration in determining the use of therapy for the mother and child.
In people on PPIs for longer than six months, a dose taper should be considered prior to discontinuation. For those on a moderate- to high-dose this can be done by 50 percent every week until on the lowest dose. After a week it can then be stopped.
The mechanism of action of pantoprazole is to inhibit the final step in gastric acid production. In the gastric parietal cell of the stomach, pantoprazole covalently binds to the H+/K+ ATP pump to inhibit gastric acid and basal acid secretion. The covalent binding prevents acid secretion for up to 24 hours and longer.
Pantoprazole is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 system. Metabolism mainly consists of demethylation by CYP2C19 followed by sulfation. Another metabolic pathway is oxidation by CYP3A4. Pantoprazole metabolites are not thought to have any pharmacological significance. It is usually given with a prokinetic drug because of inactivity in the acidic environment of the stomach. Pantoprazole binds irreversibly to H+K+ATPase (proton pumps) to suppress the secretion of acid. Due to irreversible binding of the pumps, new pumps have to be made before acid production can be resumed. The drug's plasma half-life is about 2 hours.
Pantoprazole was discovered by scientists at Byk Gulden, a subsidiary of Altana; the drug discovery program started in 1980 and which produced pantoprazole in 1985 - the compound was actually created by chemists working on scaleup of a different chemical that had been chosen as a development candidate.:117,129 Byk Gulden partnered with Smith Kline & French in 1984.:124 The compound's development names were BY1029 and SK&F96022.:123 By 1986 the companies had created the sodium salt, pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate, and decided to develop it as it was more soluble and stable, and was more compatible with other ingredients used in the formulation.:130 It was first marketed in Germany in 1994.:130 Wyeth licensed the US patent from Altana. and obtained marketing approval from the US FDA in 2000 under the trade name Protonix.
In 2004 worldwide sales of the drug were $3.65 billion, about half of which were in the US.
In 2007 Altana's drug business was acquired by Nycomed. Nycomed was in turn acquired by Takeda in 2011 and Wyeth was acquired by Pfizer in 2009.
The patent protecting the drug was set to expire in 2010, but Teva Pharmaceutical filed an ANDA in 2007, and Wyeth and Nycomed sued Teva for patent infringement, but Teva decided to launch its generic drug "at risk" that year, before the patent had been invalidated. Wyeth launched an authorized generic in 2008. Pfizer and Takeda's patent exclusivity expired in 2010, and an administrative exclusivity they had for pediatric use expired in January 2011, and full generic competition began. The litigation between Teva and Pfizer/Takeda was settled in 2013, with Teva paying the patent holders $2.15 billion in damages for its early launch.
As of 2017, the drug was marketed under many brands worldwide, including as a combination drug with domperidone, a combination with itopride, in combination with both clarithromycin and amoxicillin, in combination with levosulpiride, and in combination with naproxen.
As of 2017, was marketed under many brands worldwide, including: Acernix, Aciban, Acida, Acido-X, Acidrol, Acidwell, Acilib, Acilibre, Acillect, Acipan, Acrid, Alapanzol, Amphoter, Anagastra, Anesteloc, Antaxid, Antopral, Anulacid, Anxel, Apazol, Appryo, Aptizole, Apton, Armcid, Asoprazole, Aspan, Aurizol-P, Awamed, Azatol, Biotop V, Brandocare, Branzol, Buffet, Buscopan Reflusso, Caprol, Ciprazol, Citrel, Clessol, Comenazol, Conoran, Contix, Contracid, Contraflux, Contro-Cap, Controloc, Controloc, Cool Pan, Delpanto EC, Digene Total, Digespan, Dosanloc, Empaflun, Eracid, Erprazol, Esopan, Eupantol, Exopan, Extream, Extreme, F-Pan, Farmazol, Fenix, Fexmor, Fu Shi Tan, Fulpan, Fupan, Gastblok, Gastenz, Gastrazol-L, Gastriwin, Gastrolan, Gastroloc, Gastromax, Gastronorm, Gastroprozal, Gastrostad, Gastrowell, Gastrozol, Gerdamegh, Gerprazol, Gesoflux, Gondea, Gopan, Hansazol, Hasanloc, Helix, Iboprot, Inipant, Inipepsia, Inipomp, IPP, Ippracid, Ipraalox, Kaiji, Kairol, Letopra, Loxanto, Luoxu, Lupipan, Maalox, Mag, Manez, Marozel, Monpan, Nelgast, Nexpan, Noacid, Noacid, Nolpaza, Nolpaza, Normogastrol, Noxadif, Ntap, Nuosen, Nupenta, Oritop, Osipan, Ozepran, Ozpan, Ozzion, P-20, P-40, P-Bit, P-OD, P-PPI, P-Zole, Pacid, Paciddia, Palio, Palmy, Pamel, Pamtrazol, Pamyl, Pan, Panbloc, Pancleus, Pancrazio, Pandev, Pane, Panfast, Pangest, Panglen, Panlan, Panlisu, Panloc, Panloz, Panmeilu, Panocer, Panogastin, Panopaz, Panor, Panoral, Panore, Panpot, Panpra, Panprabene, Panprax, Panprazol, Panprazox, Panpro, Panproton, Panpure, Panrazol, Panrazole, Panrbe, Panref, Pansa, Pansec, Panso, Pantac, Pantacid, Pantact, Pantagi, Pantakind, Pantaltius, Pantap, Pantasur, Pantaz, Pantazol, Pantecta, Pantex, Pantexel, Pantezol, Panthec, Panthron, Pantid, Pantin, Pantip, Pantium, Panto, Panto-Denk, Panto-Gas, Pantobex, Pantoc, Pantocal, Pantocar, Pantocare, Pantocas, Pantocer, Pantocid, Pantocim, Pantocom, Pantocure, Pantodac, Pantodar, Pantofin, Pantofir, Pantogastrix, Pantogen, Pantogerolan, PantoJenson, Pantokem, Pantokool, Pantolax, Pantoline, Pantoloc, Pantolok, Pantolup, Pantomax, Pantomed
, Pantometylentina, Pantomyl, Pantonis, Pantonix, Pantop, Pantopacid, Pantopan, Pantopaz, Pantopep, Pantopi, Pantopra-Q, Pantopraz, Pantoprazal, Pantoprazol, Pantoprazole, Pantoprazolo, Pantoprazolum, Pantoprem, Pantoprix, Pantoprol, Pantopump, Pantor, Pantorc, Pantoren, Pantorica, Pantosal, Pantosan, Pantosec, Pantosid, Pantostad, Pantotab, Pantotis, Pantover, Pantoz, Pantozim, Pantozol, Pantozole, Pantpas, Pantra, Pantrol, Pantroz, Pantul, Pantune, Pantus, Panveda, Panvell, Panz, Panzat, Panzel, Panzilan, Panzilan, Panzol, Panzole, Panzor, Parastamic, Paz, Peblo, Penkool, Penlip, Pentalink, Pentastar, Pentowin, Pentoz, Pentozed, Peploc, Peptac, Peptazol, Peptazole, Pepticaid, Pepticool, Peptix, Peptoloc, Pepzol, Perloc, Pipanzin, Pozola, Praize, Pranza, Praz-Up, Prazobloc, Prazocid, Prazolacid, Prazolan, Prazole, Prazolpan, Prazopant, Pregel, Prevacid, Previfect, Previfect, Progen, Prolex, Promtec, Propanz, Protech, Protinum, Protium, Protocent, Protocid, Protofix, Protoloc, Proton, Proton-P, Protonex, Protonil, Protonix, Protopan, PTA, Pulcet, Pumpisel, Ranloc, Razon, Rcpan, Redacib, Refluxine, Refluxopan, rifun, Ripane, Roxitrol, Sedipanto, Segregam, Seltraz, Sipar, Sodac, Somac, Sozol, Stamic, Stomafor, Stripole, Sumipral, Supacid, Super OM, Suppi, Supracam, Supracid, Surmera, Tai Mei Ni Ke, Tecta, Tonval, Topazol, Topra, Topraz, Topzole, Toraflux, Tropaz, Trupan, Ulceron, Ulcoreks, Ulcotenal, Ulprix, Ulsepan, Ulstop, Ultop, Ultoz, Unigastrozol, Vencid, Ventro-Pant, Vomizole, Wei Di, Wei Ke An, Wonon, Xotepic, Yoevid, Zamotil, Zaprol, Zencopan, Zgaton, Zimpax, Zipant, Zipantol, Zipantola, Ziprol, Zolan, Zolemer, Zolpan, Zolpanz, Zolpra, Zoltex, Zoltum, Zontop, Zoprax, Zovanta, Zurcal, and Zurcazol.
It was also marketed as a combination drug with domperidone under the brand names Aciban-DSR, Acillect-DSR, Asoprazole-D, Buffet-DXR, Depam, Domelong P, Dycizol, Eracid-D, F-Pan DSR, Fulpan-D, Fulpan-DSR, Gerdom, Gi-Fri, Gopan-D, Gopan-DSR, GR8-OD, Kurepane-DSR, Latop-D, Monpan-D, Monpan-DSR, Nupenta-DSR, Odipan-DSR, Oritop-D, Oritop-DSR, P-Bit-D, P-Bit-DSR, P-Zole DSR, P-Zole-D, PAA-DSR, Palio-D, Pamtrazol-D, Pan-D, Pancrazio-DSR, Pandiff, Pandostal, Pandostal-OD, Panfast-DSR, Panopaz-D, Panor-D, Panpot-DSR, Pansa-D, Pantact-D, Pantin-D, Pantin-RD, Pantocar-D, Pantocom-D, Pantoflux, Pantojoy-DXR, Pantokool-D, Pantolex-DS, Pantopacid-D, Pantopacid-SR, Pantorica-D, Pantozol-D, Pantozol-DSR, Pantra-D, Pantune-D, Panveda-D, Panzo-D, Panzol Plus, Panzol-D, Paz-DN, Peblo-D, Peblo-DSR, Penkool-DSR, Penlip-D, Pentalink-D, Pentastar-D, Pentozed-D, Peptac D, Peptac DSR, Pepticool-DXR, Pintel-DSR, Pop-DSR, Praize-D, Praize-D Forte, Prazole Plus, Prazosan-DSR, Predom, Predom-OD, Prolex-DSR, Prolus-DSR, Protocent-DSR, Protopan-D, Protopan-H, Ripane-D, Ripane-DSR, Trazol-DSR, PTA-D, Ulcicap-PD, Ultop DSR, Ultoz-D, Wonon-D, Wonon-DSR, and Zovanta-D.
It was also marketed in combination with itopride under the brand names Ganaton Total, Kurepan-IT, Nupenta-ITR, P-Bit-ISR, Pepnil-ITO, Prolus-ISR, and Protopan-I.
It was also marketed in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin as Gastrocomb, Klacid Hp7, Panclamox, and ZacPac.
It was also marketed in combination with levosulpiride as Panlife-LS and in combination with naproxen as Arthopan.