, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections. This includes acne, cholera, brucellosis, plague, malaria, and syphilis. It is taken by mouth.
Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, rash, and loss of appetite. Other side effects include poor tooth development if used by children less than eight years of age, kidney problems, and sunburning easily. Use during pregnancy may harm the baby. Tetracycline
is in the Tetracycline
s family of medications. It works by blocking the ability of bacteria to make proteins.
was patented in 1953 and came into commercial use in 1978. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Tetracycline
is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.35 to 1.78 USD for a course of treatment. In the United States a course of treatment typically costs less than 25 USD. Tetracycline
was originally made from bacteria of the Streptomyces type.
It is first-line therapy for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia), Lyme disease (B. burgdorferi), Q fever (Coxiella), psittacosis, lymphogranuloma venereum (Chlamydia), and Mycoplasma pneumoniae and to eradicate nasal carriage of meningococci. Tetracycline
tablets were used in the plague outbreak in India in 1994.
s have a broad spectrum of antibiotic action. Originally, they possessed some level of bacteriostatic activity against almost all medically relevant aerobic and anaerobic bacterial genera, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, with a few exceptions, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus spp., which display intrinsic resistance. However, acquired (as opposed to inherent) resistance has proliferated in many pathogenic organisms and greatly eroded the formerly vast versatility of this group of antibiotics. Resistance amongst Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, anaerobes, members of the Enterobacteriaceae, and several other previously sensitive organisms is now quite common. Tetracycline
s remain especially useful in the management of infections by certain obligately intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Rickettsia. They are also of value in spirochaetal infections, such as syphilis, leptospirosis, and Lyme disease. Certain rare or exotic infections, including anthrax, plague and brucellosis, are also susceptible to Tetracycline
s. These agents also have activity against certain eukaryotic parasites, including those responsible for diseases such as malaria and balantidiasis. The following represents MIC susceptibility data for a few medically significant microorganisms:
Bacteria usually acquire resistance to Tetracycline
from horizontal transfer of a gene that either encodes an efflux pump or a ribosomal protection protein. Efflux pumps actively eject Tetracycline
from the cell, preventing the buildup of an inhibitory concentration of Tetracycline
in the cytoplasm. Ribosomal protection proteins interact with the ribosome and dislodge Tetracycline
from the ribosome, allowing for translation to continue.
Use of the Tetracycline
antibiotics group is problematic; they can:
Caution should be exercised in long-term use when breastfeeding. Short-term use is safe; bioavailability in milk is low to nil. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), cases of Stevens–Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and erythema multiforme associated with doxycyline use have been reported, but a causative role has not been established.
is absorbed into bone, it is used as a marker of bone growth for biopsies in humans. Tetracycline
labeling is used to determine the amount of bone growth within a certain period of time, usually a period around 21 days. Tetracycline
is incorporated into mineralizing bone and can be detected by its fluorescence. In "double Tetracycline
labeling", a second dose is given 11–14 days after the first dose, and the amount of bone formed during that interval can be calculated by measuring the distance between the two fluorescent labels.
is also used as a biomarker in wildlife to detect consumption of medicine- or vaccine-containing baits.
In genetic engineering, Tetracycline
is used in transcriptional activation.
It is also one of a group of antibiotics which together may be used to treat peptic ulcers caused by bacterial infections.
In cancer research at Harvard Medical School, Tetracycline
has been used to switch off leukemia in genetically altered mice, and to do so reliably, when added to their drinking water. The mechanism of action for the antibacterial effect of Tetracycline
s relies on disrupting protein translation in bacteria, thereby damaging the ability of microbes to grow and repair; however, protein translation is also disrupted in eukaryotic mitochondria leading to effects that may confound experimental results.
A technique being developed for the control of the mosquito species Aedes aegypti uses a strain that is genetically modified to require Tetracycline
to develop beyond the larval stage. Modified males raised in a laboratory develop normally as they are supplied with this chemical and can be released into the wild. Their subsequent offspring inherit this trait, but find no Tetracycline
in their environments, so never develop into adults.
is used in cell biology as a selective agent in cell culture systems. It is toxic to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and selects for cells harboring the bacterial tet r gene, which encodes a 399-amino-acid, membrane-associated protein. This protein actively exports Tetracycline
from the cell, rendering cells harboring this gene more resistant to the drug.
The yellow crystalline powder can be dissolved in water or ethanol and diluted to its final concentration in cell culture, where it has a half-life around 24 hours.
inhibits protein synthesis by blocking the attachment of charged aminoacyl-tRNA to the A site on the ribosome. Tetracycline
binds to the 30S subunit of microbial ribosomes. Thus, it prevents introduction of new amino acids to the nascent peptide chain. The action is usually inhibitory and reversible upon withdrawal of the drug. Mammalian cells are less vulnerable to the effect of Tetracycline
s, despite the fact that Tetracycline
binds to the small ribosomal subunit of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes (30S and 40S, respectively). This is because bacteria actively pump Tetracycline
into their cytoplasm, even against a concentration gradient, whereas mammalian cells do not. This accounts for the relatively small off-site effect of Tetracycline
on human cells.
s, a large family of antibiotics, were discovered as natural products by Benjamin Minge Duggar in 1945 and first prescribed in 1948. Benjamin Duggar, working under Yellapragada Subbarow at Lederle Laboratories, discovered the first Tetracycline
(Aureomycin), in 1945.
In 1950, Harvard University professor R.B. Woodward determined the chemical structure of the related substance, oxyTetracycline
(Terramycin);[non-primary source needed] the patent protection for its fermentation and production was also first issued in that year. Chemist Lloyd Conover, in a research team of eight scientists at Pfizer, collaborated with Woodward over a two-year period, leading to Tetracycline
Pfizer was of the view that it deserved the right to a patent on Tetracycline
and filed its Conover application in October 1952. Cyanamid filed its Boothe-Morton application for similar rights in March 1953, while Heyden Chemicals filed its Minieri application in September 1953, named after scientist P. Paul Minieri, to obtain a patent on Tetracycline
and its fermentation process.[full citation needed][non-primary source needed] This resulted in Tetracycline
litigation in which the winner would have to prove beyond reasonable doubt of priority invention and Tetracycline
’s natural state.[clarification needed][needs update]
Nubian mummies studied in the 1990s were found to contain significant levels of Tetracycline
; the beer brewed at the time was conjectured to have been the source.
According to data from EvaluatePharma and published in the Boston Globe, the price of Tetracycline
rose from $0.06 per 250-mg pill in 2013 to $4.06 a pill in 2015. The Globe described the "big price hikes of some generic drugs" as a "relatively new phenomenon" which has left most pharmacists "grappling" with large upswings" in the "costs of generics, with 'overnight' price changes sometimes exceeding 1,000%."
It is marketed under the brand names Sumycin, Tetracyn, and Panmycin, among others. Actisite is a thread-like fiber formulation used in dental applications.
It is also used to produce several semisynthetic derivatives, which together are known as the Tetracycline
antibiotics. The term "Tetracycline
" is also used to denote the four-ring system of this compound; "Tetracycline
s" are related substances that contain the same four-ring system.