HIV | Community-based Interventions to Increase HIV Testing and HIV Care Utilization

HIV research study

What is the primary objective of this study?

The purpose of this study is to conduct a cross-site evaluation of the Kaiser Permanente's Community-based Interventions to Increase HIV Testing and HIV Care Utilization Program, designed to support community-based interventions to reduce the number of new HIV cases and to increase HIV care acquisition and maintenance in minority communities disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. This effort builds on the President's National Strategy for HIV Prevention and recent research documenting the importance and efficacy of \"test and treat\" and \"treatment as prevention\" approaches. Hence, goals of this important and novel work will focus on the following objectives: 1. identification of HIV infection among recently infected adolescents and adults 2. improved access to HIV care, particularly among newly diagnosed adolescents and adults To achieve these objectives, the following outcomes are expected from grantee programs: 1. increased HIV testing among populations at risk for HIV 2. improved health care utilization among HIV infected adults and adolescents This initiative has been undertaken by Kaiser to affect HIV at a population level via community approaches to prevention, intervention and care in minority communities most affected by HIV (e.g. gay, African American, and Latino communities). The University of California, San Diego has developed and will oversee a cross-site evaluation of Kaiser grantee programs funded under this initiative. Each site will have a treatment and comparison group, and will conduct follow up surveys with their participants three and six months after their interventions.

Who is eligible to participate?

Inclusion Criteria: - Individuals will be adults, - aged 18 and over, - with the capacity to give informed consent. Exclusion Criteria: Those who do not have the capacity to give informed consent will be excluded.

Which medical condition, disease, disorder, syndrome, illness, or injury is researched?


Study Interventions

Interventions can include giving participants drugs, medical devices, procedures, vaccines, and other products that are either investigational or already available or noninvasive approaches such as surveys, education, and interviews.

Other:HIV testingHIV testing. Enhanced testing protocol is used: RESPECT, an evidence-based HIV prevention counseling intervention helping people increase condom use, decrease risky behaviors (resulting in a decrease in STIs) compared to those who did not receive the intervention. RESPECT includes: one-on-one counseling using a structured protocol; "teachable moments" during counseling to motivate clients to change risk-taking behaviors; to explore the contexts in which risk behaviors occur to increase awareness of susceptibility; and negotiate achievable "next steps" with the client that support the larger risk reduction goal. Implemented using a structured protocol with monitoring to ensure the fidelity of the testing intervention.

Other:standard of HIV careStandard linkage and referral to HIV care includes HIV counseling, testing, and referrals. Both intervention and comparison groups will receive these.

Behavioral:HIV care utilizationSites will use a peer-based, client navigation model of an Integrated HIV/AIDS Early Intervention Services (ARTAS), Community Health Worker (CHW) Program, case management/support services linking people to continuous, coordinated care after HIV dx. Another site will do Motivational Enhancement Intervention (MEI) sessions with quality of ife workshops and support groups. Health Educators recruit clients, make appointments, escort to test sites, intake, review. Additional components can include food security support, social and group support, drop in centers, text messaging and social media, depending on sites. All sites focus on approaches to reach community members and facilitate their supportive linkage to care with behavioral and structural supports.

Study Arms

Research studies and clinical trials typically have two or more research arms. An arm is a group of people who receive the same treatment in the study.

HIV testingIdentification of HIV infection among recently infected adults

HIV care utilizationImproved access to HIV care and HIV care utilization, particularly among newly diagnosed adults

standard of careStandard of HIV care; standard of linkage to HIV care

Study Status


Start Date: June 2013

Completed Date: December 2017

Phase: N/A

Type: Interventional


Primary Outcome: Increased HIV care utilization

Secondary Outcome: Increased HIV testing among populations at risk for HIV

Study sponsors, principal investigator, and references

Principal Investigator: Anita Raj, PhD

Lead Sponsor: Kaiser Permanente

Collaborator: University of California, San Diego

More information:

CDC, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. 2007; 19:7. Available at

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