Visceral Leishmaniasis | Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Clinical/Laboratory Predictors of Tropical Diseases In Patients With Persistent Fever in Cambodia, Nepal, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan (NIDIAG-Fever)

Visceral Leishmaniasis research study

What is the primary objective of this study?

Tropical fevers have been a diagnostic challenge from the antiquity. Nowadays, despite the availability of good diagnostic capacities, undifferentiated febrile illnesses continue to be a thorny problem for travel physicians. In developing countries, the scarcity of skilled personnel and adequate laboratory facilities makes the differential diagnosis of fevers even more complex. Health care workers must often rely on syndrome-oriented empirical approaches to treatment and might overestimate or underestimate the likelihood of certain diseases. For instance Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) contribute substantially to the burden of persistent (more than 1 week) fevers in the Tropics, causing considerable mortality and major disability. These diseases are however rarely diagnosed at primary health care (PHC) level. The difficulty in establishing the cause of febrile illnesses has resulted in omission or delays in treatment, irrational prescriptions with polytherapy, increasing cost and development of drug resistance. In resource-limited settings, clinical algorithms constitute a valuable aid to health workers, as they facilitate the therapeutic decision in the absence of good laboratory capacities. There is a critical lack of appropriate diagnostic tools to guide treatment of NTDs. While clinical algorithms have been developed for some NTDs, in most cases they remain empirical. Besides, they rarely take into account local prevalence data, do not adequately represent the spectrum of patients and differential diagnosis at the primary care level and often have not been properly validated. The purpose of the study is to develop evidence-based Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT)-supported diagnostic guidelines for patients with persistent fever (≥ 1 week) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Sudan, Cambodia and Nepal.

Who is eligible to participate?

Inclusion Criteria: - fever for ≥ 1 week - ≥ 5 years old (18 years onward in Cambodia) Exclusion Criteria: - unwilling or unable to give written informed consent - unable in the study physician's opinion to comply with the study requirements - existing laboratory confirmed diagnosis - need of immediate intensive care due to shock or respiratory distress

Which medical condition, disease, disorder, syndrome, illness, or injury is researched?

Visceral Leishmaniasis

Human African Trypanosomiasis

Enteric Fever




Relapsing Fever

Rickettsial Diseases




Amoebic Liver Abscess

Study Interventions

Interventions can include giving participants drugs, medical devices, procedures, vaccines, and other products that are either investigational or already available or noninvasive approaches such as surveys, education, and interviews.

Device:rk28 ICTrk28 ICT is an immunochromatographic assay intended for qualitative detection of IgG antibodies directed towards VL in human serum, plasma or whole blood. It is manufactured by EASE-Medtrend (Shanghai, China)

Device:IT LEISH (rK39)IT LEISH is an immuno-chromatographic test, using the recombinant antigen K39, to detect the presence of antibodies against Leishmania spp. It is manufactured by BioRad laboratories, USA.

Device:Immunochromatographic HAT testThis is a lateral flow immunochromatographic test manufactured by Standard Diagnostics (Korea) in collaboration with FIND.

Device:HAT SerostripThe HAT Serostrip is an immunochromatographic assay developed by Coris BioConcept, France, which is designed for remote field use in individual HAT suspects.

Device:Card Agglutination Trypanosoma Test (CATT)-10The Card Agglutination Trypanosoma test (CATT) has been used for many years at large scale for mass screening of mostly asymptomatic individuals (CATT-R250). Unfortunately, its operating characteristics have only been evaluated in the context of patients with persistent fever. Although it is not strictly an RDT, the CATT is rather easily performed in remote settings, in particular since a new and more robust format (CATT-D10) allows to test a lower number of patients in peripheral health facilities. It is manufactured by the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp, Belgium.

Device:Typhidot MThe Typhidot M test is a dot enzyme immunoassay that detects IgM and IgG directed against Salmonella typhi. It is manufactured by Reszon Diagnostics International, Malaysia

Device:S. typhi IgM/IgGThe Salmonella typhi IgG/IgM Rapid Test is an immunochromatographic assay for the qualitative differential detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to Salmonella typhi in human serum, plasma or whole blood. It is manufactured by Standard Diagnostics (Korea)

Device:Test-it Typhoid IgMTest-it Typhoid IgM lateral flow assay is a one-step immunochromatographic assay which uses a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen derived from salmonella typhi for the detection of specific IgM antibodies. It is manufactured by Life Assay, South Africa.

Device:Test-it Leptospirosis IgMThe Test-it™ Leptospira lateral flow device detects IgM antibodies in humans against Leptospira in whole blood or serum. It is manufactured by Life Assay, South Africa

Device:Leptospira IgG/IgMThis test enables the differential detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to Leptospira interrogans. It is manufactured by Standard Diagnostics, Korea

Study Arms

Research studies and clinical trials typically have two or more research arms. An arm is a group of people who receive the same treatment in the study.

Phase 3 DiagnosticA total of 10 RDTs will be assessed in the patients cohort for the respective target condition

Study Status


Start Date: January 2013

Completed Date: July 2016

Phase: N/A

Type: Interventional


Primary Outcome: Prevalence of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and other Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)

Secondary Outcome: Cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic tests

Study sponsors, principal investigator, and references

Principal Investigator: François Chappuis, MD, PhD

Lead Sponsor: University Hospital, Geneva

Collaborator: Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium

More information:

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